30 octubre 2011

GERALD COLBY : Periodista de Investigacion de raza - ya no existen


Paperback--

Thy Will Be Done: 
The Conquest of the Amazon: 

Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism 
in the Age of Oil


960 pages, Publisher: HarperCollins; (May 1995) - ASIN: 0060167645

by Gerard Colby, Charlotte Dennett



LOS ROCKEFELLER, EL CRISTIANISMO FUNDAMENTALISTA Y LA

CONQUISTA DEL AMAZONAS en la ERA DEL PETROLEO

Reseña escrita por Carmelo Ruiz

En el año 1976 los reporteros estadounidenses Gerard Colby y Charlotte Dennett viajaron a Brasil para escribir artículos sobre la labor de misioneros cristianos en la cuenca del Amazonas. En particular, ambos estaban interesados en investigar a una misteriosa organización misionera conocida como el Instituto Linguístico de Verano (ILV).

Este grupo, también conocido como los Wycliffe Bible Translators, había sido elogiado por conservadores y liberales por igual por traducir la biblia a cientos de lenguajes indígenas y ayudar a los indígenas a ajustarse a la llegada de la civilización occidental a sus tierras.

Pero Colby y Dennett habían oído que el trabajo del ILV tenía un aspecto macabro y funesto. Muchos críticos habían alegado que el ILV era la vanguardia de la destrucción del bosque tropical y sus habitantes indígenas. Ambos habían oído de amistades latinoamericanas que estos misioneros exploraban la cuenca del Amazonas para hallar y neutralizar fuentes potenciales de oposición indígena a la explotación de recursos naturales por parte de corporaciones transnacionales. 

Además de esto, oyeron decir que el ILV predicaba un fundamentalismo fanático que usaba la linguística para socavar la estructura social de las comunidades indígenas y acelerar su asimilación cultural a la economía de mercado. Además, numerosos artículos en la prensa latinoamericana acusaban al ILV de ser financiado por agencias de inteligencia de Estados Unidos. 

Esa última acusación tenía credibilidad, ya que Colby y Dennett hicieron su viaje a Brasil precisamente cuando el comité Church del senado de EE.UU. había concluído su investigación  sobre las actividades de las agencias de inteligencia de dicho país. 

Entre otros hallazgos, el comité senatorial descubrió que la Agencia Central de Inteligencia (CIA) había usado misioneros cristianos para recopilar información en el tercer mundo.
Hace falta mencionar que para entonces Colby ya era un conocedor de las intrigas políticas y corporativas.


El escribió el libro Du Pont: Behind the Nylon Curtain
(Prentice Hall, 1974), el cual narra la historia corrupta de la poderosa familia Dupont, creadora ydueña de la corporación del mismo nombre. 

Pero noesperen verlo en librerías. 

Cuando un representante
de Dupont dijo que el libro podría causar una demanda,
la casa editorial Prentice Hall se dejó intimidar y
dejó de imprimir copias. En 1984 una versión
expandida y actualizada de Du Pont de más de 900
páginas de longitud fue publicada pero
desgraciadamente la familia Du Pont se encargó de que
corriera la misma suerte que la edición original.
Dennett también era veterana del periodismo. Cuando
ella fue a Brasil con Colby estaba recién regresada de
Beirut, donde había cubierto la guerra civil del
Líbano.

Los autores descubrieron que el ILV es un verdadero
imperio cuyas actividades proselitistas y misioneras
cubren todos los países de la cuenca del Amazonas. El
ILV hasta tiene su propia fuerza aérea y sistema de
comunicaciones, el Jungle Aviation and Radio Service
(JAARS), el cual le permite actual casi
independientemente de los gobiernos de los países
donde opera. Después de años de investigación, Colby
y Dennett encontraron varios vínculos entre el ILV y
la estrategia de contrainsurgencia de EE.UU., por
ejemplo: el ILV negó descaradamente que los indígenas
de Guatemala y Brasil sean víctimas de genocidio
perpetrado por los militares que gobernaron ambos
países, complementando así la propaganda y
desinformación anticomunista de Washington; permitió
que su base en Ecuador fuera usada por un contingente
de boinas verdes que estaban explorando la jungla en
busca de guerrillas; y dió asistencia a la fuerza
aérea peruana, la cual había usado napalm contra los
indígenas mayorunas y campas.

Si Colby y Dennett se hubieran limitado a investigar
el ILV, Thy Will Be Done todavía hubiera sido un
formidable logro periodístico. Pero los autores
también investigaron las instituciones estadounidenses
que han dado apoyo a la misión del ILV. Estas han
incluído a Standard Oil of New Jersey; la US Agency
for International Development; el ejército de EE.UU.,
el cual le ha regalado equipo de sobra (military
surplus); y la familia Pew, dueña de la compañía
petrolera Sun Oil y creadora de la fundación Pew
Charitable Trusts. A pesar de que no encontraron
ninguna evidencia directa e irrefutable de asociación
con la CIA, Colby y Dennett sí encontraron mucha
evidencia circunstancial, por ejemplo: 1) el ILV una
vez recibió dinero de la Asia Foundation, la cual era
un fronte de la CIA y 2) el piloto Lawrence Montgomery
trabajaba para JAARS y la CIA simultáneamente.

En el curso de su investigación, los autores
encontraron que el ILV tenía una gran deuda a
individuos e instituciones asociados con la familia
Rockefeller. El fundador del ILV, el carismático
William Cameron "Cam" Townsend, fue inspirado por las
campañas contra la malaria y los parásitos de la
Fundación Rockefeller y la Comisión Sanitaria
Rockefeller; y sus métodos linguísticos eran derivados
de las técnnicas del linguista Edward Sapir de la
Universidad de Chicago, institución financiada por la
Fundación Rockefeller. Otra persona que influenció el
pensamiento de Townsend fue el antropólogo mexicano
Manuel Gamio, cuyos estudios interdisciplinarios sobre
los pueblos indígenas fueron patrocinados por la
Universidad de Chicago, el Laura Spelman Rockefeller
Memorial Fund y el Social Science Research Council.
Estas dos últimas instituciones eran dirigidas por
Beardsley Ruml, quien era integrante del círculo de
influencias de la familia Rockefeller. Otro pensador
que tuvo una influencia decisiva sobre Townsend fue
John Mott, uno de los asistentes principales de John
D. Rockefeller, hijo. Mott era un milenario que
quería evangelizar el mundo en su generación pero
rechazó el fundamentalismo en favor de un método de
criterio amplio y basado en la técnica científica. En
un informe que co-escribió en 1932, titulado
Rethinking Missions, Mott pidió más tolerancia
cultural y preocupación social por parte de los
misioneros que trabajaban en el extranjero y que
dejaran a un lado la gritería y el proselitismo
etnocéntrico y anti-intelectual que caracterizaba a
muchos de ellos. Mott estaba convencido de que su
método a la larga convertiría a más gente y
desplazaría a los nacionalistas y comunistas que
estaban retando al imperialismo.

Colby y Dennett estuvieron intrigados por la conexión
Rockefeller y decidieron investigar los intereses
financieros de esta familia en el desarrollo comercial
e industrial del área del Amazonas. En 1941 Nelson
Rockefeller, nieto del infame John D., fue nombrado
por el presidente Roosevelt al puesto de coordinador
de la Oficina de Asuntos Interamericanos (CIAA), la
cual llevó a cabo operaciones de propaganda y
espionaje contra los nazis en Latinoamérica. Como
coordinador de la CIAA, Nelson adquirió información
valiosa acerca de los recursos naturales de
Suramérica, especialmente reservas minerales. Estos
datos acabaron en sus archivos privados y los usó
después de la guerra, cuando fundó la International
Basic Economy Corporation (IBEC). Esta compañía fue
un componente clave en la apertura del Amazonas a la
explotación comercial después de la segunda guerra
mundial, la cual eventualmente conllevó a dictaduras
militares, genocidio de los pueblos indígenas, erosión
de la diversidad biológica y miseria sin precedente
para la mayoría de los brasileños.

La conquista del Amazonas por parte de los Rockefeller
y otros grandes intereses fue facilitada en gran parte
por las actividades misioneras del ILV. Los autores
encontraron un paralelo histórico en el apoyo que John
D. Rockefeller dió a misioneros cristianos en el oeste
americano, los cuales estaban recopilando información
muy útil sobre los indígenas. Como bono especial, el
proceso de evangelización debilitaba la estructura
social de las comunidades indígenas y así dejaban de
ser una fuente potencial de oposición a las
actividades de Standard Oil, corporación petrolera
controlada por los Rockefeller. Colby y Dennett citan
en su libro las palabras reveladoras del reverendo
bautista Frederick Gates, quien fue brazo derecho de
John D. Rockefeller: "Estamos apenas en el alba del
comercio, y le debemos ese alba a los canales forjados
por misioneros cristianos... El efecto de la labor
misionera de los pueblos angloparlantes será
brindarles la conquista pacífica del mundo".

Por otro lado, es igualmente cierto que la misión del
ILV fue asistida por los Rockefeller y el proceso de
desarrollo industrial del cual ellos eran parte. Los
misioneros del ILV creen que cuando la última tribu de
la jungla sea evangelizada se dará la segunda venida
de Cristo, por eso para ellos la explotación de los
recursos naturales del Amazonas es sólo un medio para
lograr un fin. En práctica, la relación simbiótica
entre la explotación comercial y el cristianismo
fundamentalista ha resultado ser una mezcla infernal
que ha llevado al genocidio de los indígenas y la
destrucción de un ecosistema que probablemente es el
más diverso e importante del mundo.

Thy Will Be Done sigue la carrera de Nelson
Rockefeller y su interés en América Latina: sus días
en Venezuela trabajando para Creole Petroleum,
subsidiaria de Standard Oil; sus intrigas como
coordinador de la CIAA; Su breve tiempo como asistente
al secretario de estado, puesto en el cual jugó un rol
importante en las negociaciones internacionales que
llevaron a la creación de la Organización de las
Naciones Unidas y la Organización de Estados
Americanos (OEA); su servicio a la administración
Eisenhower como asistente especial a cargo de estragia
de guerra fría, en donde fue informado acerca de las
operaciones de la CIA (entre ellas los macabros
experimentos médicos del programa MK-ULTRA); su
membresía en el President's Foreign Intelligence
Advisory Board precisamente cuando la CIA estaba
atacando el gobierno democrático socialista de
Salvador Allende en Chile; y muchas cosas más.

Como dato interesante, los autores mencionan que dos
de los principales aliados políticos de Nelson en las
negociaciones para la creación de la OEA fueron el
ecuadoreño Galo Plaza y el colombiano Alberto Lleras
Camargo. Ambos llegaron a ser presidentes de sus
países y secretarios generales de la OEA y fueron
fieles esbirros de los Rockefeller. De hecho, Lleras
Camargo fue síndico de la Fundación Rockefeller.

De interés especial para Colby y Dennett son una serie
de seminarios privados dirigidos por Nelson y
patrocinados por el Rockefeller Brothers Fund en la
base naval de Quantico durante la administración
Eisenhower. En estos seminarios se abogó en favor de
aumentar los gastos militares y se recomendó que se
adoptara una política más belicosa y confrontacional
hacia la Unión Soviética. Los participantes
incluyeron hombres que años más tarde desarrollarían
la estrategia de contrainsurgencia del presidente John
F. Kennedy: Eugene Rostow, Edward Lansdale, Paul
Nitze, Adolf Berle, McGeorge Bundy, Walt Rostow, Henry
Kissinger y Dean Rusk (quien era entonces presidente
de la Fundación Rockefeller y luego sería nombrado
secretario de estado por Kennedy).

En 1969 el presidente Nixon mandó Nelson a una gira
por América Latina para estudiar su situación
corriente y hacer recomendaciones al gobierno de
EE.UU. con respecto a su política hemisférica. Nelson
fue acompañado por (entre otros):

* Andrew McLellan. Representante de la federación
laboral AFL-CIO que viajó a Brasil poco después del
golpe militar de 1964 para ayudar a los golpistas en
la eliminación de elementos progresistas en el
movimiento laboral brasileño.
* George D. Woods. Síndico de la Fundación Rockefeller
y miembro de la junta directiva del diario New York
Times.
* George Beebe. Editor gerencial del Miami Herald y
miembro de la junta directiva del Inter-American Press
Association, un fronte de la CIA.
* Kenneth Holland. Presidente del Institute of
International Relations, un fronte de la CIA que
administraba intercambios estudiantiles y becas
Fulbright.
* El general Robert Porter. Ex-jefe del Comando Sur.
Supervisó la cacería de Che Guevara en Bolivia.

Afortunadamente para los pueblos de Latinoamérica,
esta gira fue una jornada desastrosa para Nelson, ya
que los sectores progresistas no desperdiciaron
ninguna oportunidad para demostrar su repudio a los
Rockefeller y al imperialismo. Su rotundo fracaso es
narrado elocuentemente en Thy Will Be Done.

En 1974 Nelson fue nombrado vicepresidente de EE.UU.
por el entonces presidente Gerald Ford. ¡Como
vicepresidente (por increíble que parezca) dirigió una
comisión para investigar las actividades ilegales de
la CIA! Los miembros de esta comisión, cuya labor es
comentada en el libro, incluyeron a:

* C. Douglas Dillon. Secretario del tesoro durante la
administración Kennedy. Como subsecretario de estado
de la administración Eisenhower, Dillon participó en
discusiones sobre si asesinar o no a Fidel Castro y al
nacionalista africano Patricio Lumumba. En 1971 llegó
a dirigir la junta de síndicos de la Fundación
Rockefeller. Por varios años estuvo en la junta
directiva del Institute for International Education,
el cual recibía dinero de la CIA.
* El general Lyman Lemnitzer. Ayudó a planificar la
invasión a Playa Girón. Lemnitzer quiso mandar al
ejército de EE.UU. a participar en la invasión pero
Kennedy no lo permitió.
* Lane Kirkland. Presidente de la AFL-CIO. Kirkland
dió gran apoyo al American Institute for Free Labor
Development, el cual es un vehículo reaccionario
financiado por la CIA y varias corporaciones para
promover un sindicalismo amarillo y servil en países   extranjeros.

 
* John T. Connor. Miembro de la junta directiva del
banco Chase Manhattan (el cual era entonces dirigido
por David Rockefeller, hermano de Nelson), y
secretario de comercio de la administración Johnson.
Connor era presidente de Allied Chemical, corporación
en la cual los Rockefeller tenían entonces $52
millones en acciones.
* Erwin Griswold. Abogado que argumentó ante la corte suprema que el ejército de EE.UU. tiene el derecho a realizar operaciones de espionaje contra activistas opuestos a la guerra de Vietnam.
* Un actor retirado llamado Ronald Reagan.

En resumidas cuentas, Thy Will Be Done es un libro impresionante y extremadamente bien documentado. Uno de sus muchos méritos es demostrar que la destrucción ambiental de la jungla del Amazonas y el genocidio de
los pueblos indígenas son dos fenómenos inseparables.
No sólo son inseparables entre sí sino que son
inseparables también del drama geopolítico, económico
e histórico del siglo veinte. Hay quienes nos dicen que todos somos igualmente culpables por la crisis ambiental, pero los autores de este libro demuestran
convincentemente que algunos son más culpables que otros.

El autor es investigador asociado del Instituto de
Ecología Social en Vermont, EE.UU.


Thy Will Be Done also shows how Rockefeller, the C.I.A. and their Latin American counterparts used the Wycliffe Bible Translators, otherwise known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics, headed by William Cameron Townsend, to "soften up " native peoples in Latin America and the Far East so they could be more easily exploited. The result was the slaughter or displacement of millions of native peoples, the theft of tens of millions of acres of their land and the destruction of the environme nt at a rate which suggests planetary suicide. (For example, every year in Brazil' s rain forest an area is being destroyed by fire which is the equivalent of half the size of California). It is a story paralleled only by the equally iniquitous treatment of Native American peoples and their environment on this continent.

"IT'S SIGNIFICANT, HEARTBREAKING AND INVOLVES THE WORK OF AMERICAN RELIGION, BUSINESS, POLITICS AND WARS."


This extraordinary saga moves from the Oval Office to the Amazon rain forests to show how Cold War intrigue linked a powerful American family, the U.S. government, and a missionary organization in a forty-year campaign to conquer the Amazon. At the heart of this story are two intensely ambitious men: Nelson Rockefeller, scion of the liberal and immensely wealthy Standard Oil family, and William Cameron Townsend, founder of the ultraconservative Wycliffe Bible Translators. Although leaders of opposing camps, they found common cause in the struggle against fascism and then communism, with the result that hundreds of thousands of Amazonian tribespeople died or were displaced. The systematic campaign of colonization fathered by Rockefeller and Townsend was a chilling foreshadowing of American intervention in the Third World to secure valuable natural resources in the name of democracy





His extraordinary saga moves from the Oval Office to the Amazon rain forests to show how Cold War intrigue linked a powerful American family, the U.S. government, and a missionary organization in a forty-year campaign to conquer the Amazon. At the heart of this story are two intensely ambitious men: Nelson Rockefeller, scion of the liberal and immensely wealthy Standard Oil family, and William Cameron Townsend, founder of the ultraconservative Wycliffe Bible Translators. Although leaders of opposing camps, they found common cause in the struggle against fascism and then communism, with the result that hundreds of thousands of Amazonian tribespeople died or were displaced. The systematic campaign of colonization fathered by Rockefeller and Townsend was a chilling foreshadowing of American intervention in the Third World to secure valuable natural resources in the name of democracy.

From Publishers Weekly
Nelson Rockefeller, who died in 1979, owned vast Latin American real estate and cattle ranching, mining, industrial and financial interests centered in Brazil. To protect his empire and secure Third World assets for exploitation by U.S. capitalism, Rockefeller-a top Latin American adviser to presidents from FDR to Nixon, and Ford's vice-president-played a dominant role in shaping the U.S.'s interventionist policy in Latin America, according to this blistering expose based on 18 years of research. Rockefeller, as President Eisenhower's special assistant for Cold War strategy, oversaw the CIA's covert operations abroad and was privy to assassination plots and mind-control experiments, the authors maintain.

Colby (DuPont: Behind the Nylon Curtain) and his wife, Dennett, a freelance journalist, charge that Rockefeller, his banks and their allies, working with the CIA, bolstered repressive regimes in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Paraguay. Forcible dislocation of native peoples, hunger, disease, genocide and the ongoing destruction of the Amazon rain forest are the legacy of these policies, in the authors' analysis.

Another key player in this massive narrative is ultraconservative William Cameron Townsend (1896-1982), founder of the Protestant missionary organization Wycliffe Bible Translators, which worked in concert with Rockefeller and which the authors accuse of destroying indigenous peoples' cultural values to abet penetration by U.S. businesses. Illustrations not seen by PW. Copyright 1994 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Library Journal
Exploring the genocide of Natives in the Amazon in the mid-1970s, the authors discovered information about Nelson Rockefeller that they believed merited further research. The resulting work, a detailed exploration of the intertwining of two major figures-Rockefeller, politician and Eastern establishment expert on Latin America, and William Cameron Townsend, confidant of Mexican president Lazaro Cardendas and founder of the Wycliffe Bible Translators-and their life's work in the region.

Colby and Dennett argue that both men colonized Latin America, the first economically, the second culturally, in collusion with certain U.S. government interests over many decades. Their actions had severe consequences detrimental to development in the region, specifically to the human rights and social evolution of indigenous groups. This damning thesis, based on substantial field research, interviews, and fresh documentation, will provoke considerable controversy. The book is highly recommended. Roderic A. Camp, Latin American Ctr., Tulane Univ., New Orleans Copyright 1995 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Los Angeles Times
"This well-documented, clearly written book alerts us to the immense suffering and damage in the Amazon and elsewhere caused by multinational corporate greed and ultraconservative religious ardor, headquartered in the United States and abetted by covert foreign policies. The systematic violations against human dignity and ecological integrity continue and can only be stopped by being brought to light. To that end, this book does a highly commendable job. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Booklist
A movie based on a 1965 novel by Peter Matthiessen entitled At Play in the Fields of the Lord was released two years ago; it showed the devastating impact of overzealous missionaries and the destruction of the Amazonian rain forest upon native life and culture. While the book had been generally well received, the movie was not. Described by one critic as an uninteresting and endless saga, the film would perhaps have done better if it had added some plot twists based on astounding elements from Colby and Dennett's blockbuster of a story. Husband and wife, Colby is author of DuPont: Behind the Nylon Curtain (1974), and Dennett has been researching and writing this book for 18 years. Charging virtual genocide, the authors document the deaths or uprooting of hundreds of thousands of Amazonian and South and Central American tribal peoples. They describe an unlikely and sinister alliance among the Rockefeller family, America's largest missionary organization, and the American government--an alliance formed to benefit each of its members. The Rockefellers wanted oil and other natural resources; the Wycliffe Bible Translators wanted to spread the Word of God; and the American government wanted to fight communism. This is a disheartening, tragic story that needs to be told and will attract much attention. David Rouse

From Book News, Inc.
Examines the legacies and motives of two powerful and ambitious men, Nelson Rockefeller of the Standard Oil family, and Cameron Townsend, founder of America's largest missionary organization, the Wycliffe Bible Translators, and their interests in the Amazon rain forests. Explores connections between Rockefeller and the CIA, Rockefeller's conflicts with President Kennedy over Latin America, and his secret alliance with President Johnson. Includes b&w maps and photos. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.

Publishers Weekly
"A blistering expose" --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Father Roy Bourgeois, Former Maryknoll Missionary to Bolivia, Director, School of the Americas Watch. "This book is vital reading for anyone working in solidarity with the poor in Latin America. It is packed with valuable information and gives numerous insights into how our country got involved in supporting Latin American dictators. Thy Will Be Done is a classic for our times." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Laura Nader, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley
"It is about time that the connections between the search for natural resources, corporate power, the intelligence communities, evangelical missionaries and the destruction of native peoples and their cultures were documented in detail. Such connections have been raising havoc in the third world for centuries. Colby and Dennett deserve a salute." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Randall Hayes, Executive Director, Rainforest Action Network
"If you want a crystaline understanding of the problems around the globalization of the economy -- including the role of oil companies in the destruction of the rainforest and its peoples -- Thy Will Be Done is essential reading. Filled with drama as well as facts, I recommend it with great enthusiasm." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

William Means, Chair, International Indian Treaty Council
"Thy Will Be Done confirms in vivid detail what Indians in the north have known for a long time. Many American institutions and their leaders are involved in a global conspiracy to destroy Amazon Indians and their living environment for the sake of quick profits. In the same manner, they destroyed our healthy economy by slaughtering the buffalo and attacking our sleeping villages to get us out of the way. We can do much more to help the Amazon people. It is not too late." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

David Korten, Former Ford Foundation project specialist, Author, When Corporations Rule the World: "Thy Will Be Done makes a monumental contribution to the literature on modern corporate colonialism. A truly heroic endeavor, its documentation is nothing short of Herculean. I am recommending it wherever I go." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Stephen Corry, Director, Survival International: "The real story of Amazonia is buried in labyrinths of hidden deals and corporate scheming, disgraceful dissimulation and outright lies -- as impenetrable as popular images about the forest itself. The big losers are, as always, the tribal peoples 'in our way.' Here at last is a book which shines light onto this monstrous, secret -- and tragically, continuing -- scandal. Read it! --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Vandana Shiva, Author, Biotechnology and the Environment and Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development: "Thy Will Be Done is essential reading for every citizen looking for freedom in an age in which democracy rings hollow, as global corporations, a superpower government, and religious fundamentalism combine to colonize the world in an era of 'free trade.' The ecocide and genocide in the Amazon can be lessons of the ecocide and genocide being unleashed on a global scale by all-powerful corporations operating without frontiers and without limits." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Howard Zinn, Professor of History Emeritus, Boston University, Author, A People's History of the United States: "An extraordinary piece of investigative history. Its message is powerful, its data overwhelming and impressive. Thy Will Be Done deserves wide attention." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

John Womack, Jr., Professor of Latin American History, Harvard University: "This is a rich and fascinating book on a significant and heartbreaking subject, the work of American religion, business, politics and wars in the eradication and mass murder of the native peoples in the Amazon rainforest. Based on 18 years of research in numerous archives, nearly 200 interviews and a bibliography 20 pages long, it is probably the definitive study for the region it covers. I know of no other book like it." --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Thy will be done, January 16, 2000
Reviewer: john j mcnulty from U.S.A.
This is one of the half dozen best books I have ever read. It answered a lot of questions as to how the power brokers operate. I found some answers to the Kennedy death. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

A fantastic reference on who runs our world & how they do it, December 10, 1998
Reviewer: A reader from Wall Street, USA
I agree with all the reviews above, especially the last writer who said to buy it and keep it.

I would only add that the authors of "Thy Will Be Done" did an outstanding job of illuminating the intense conflicts between the Kennedys and Rockefellers on almost every business and government issue. Each well-sourced fact paints a picture of how much Big Business, Big Oil and Big Banks hated the Kennedys.

Col. Fletcher Prouty (Man X in the JFK movie) and the makers of the movie Executive Action pointed to a cabal of Big Money as the group that set the JFK assassination machinery in motion. I have always thought this a plausible theory but it needed more facts to support it. Colby's book provides them, in bits and pieces, scattered througout its chapters without ever announcing any belief in a conspiracy to kill JFK.

Yet, when I finished the book, I had a much clearer picture of these Big Money fat cats sitting around, discussing matters of mutual interest, including the fate of the Kennedys. And, there, at the head of the table, sat the Rockefeller Brothers.

Anyone interested in finding out more should consider reading a book by Donald Gibson called Battling Wall Street: The Kennedy Presidency. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

Insights on Elliotts and Saints, March 11, 1998
Reviewer: rkenney@carlow.edu from Pittsburgh, PA
The Colby book is of particular interest to evangelical Christians who have loved and taken inspiration from the lives of Jim and Elizabeth Elliott and Rachel Saint. It adds some information not generally known about their working relationships with each other and the Summer Institute of Linguistics, a venerable and respected organization in evangelical circles, that makes them more human and accessible. (Unfortunately, some of the references to the Elliotts and the Saints are not very well documented, so the information should be treated cautiously.)

Elizabeth Elliott has admitted in later editions of her book "The Savage My Kinsman," that there are things she prefers not to talk about now, particularly regarding her relationship with Rachel Saint, that Colby sheds some light on. Finally, the context with which the missionaries were working, that is, U.S. politics and commercial interests in South America, will be of interest to churches that need to see the big picture of their missionary work, including the cultural impact of sending whites into an indigenous area. What the book does not seem to do is actually make clear Rockefeller's involvement with the missionaries and SIL, something perhaps better extrapolated from another biography called "Rich Man in the Kingdom," about his father's interest in religious philanthropy.

This is a book to buy... not check out from library, July 26, 1997
Reviewer, a reader stated: the book title does not make full justice to its contents. It only touches on one among the many areas that are covered. The main story line follows the Rockefeller family (specially Nelson's) financial interests in the third world in parallel with the evangelizasion efforts in the same areas. However, it is difficult to imagine a wider coverage of those issues. Full account of the ties between the financial and religious interest is presented. Those range from fundraisers, political campaigns and economic interests at home to political, logistical and conspiratory collaboration abroad. Each facet is well documented so that the reader which can't possibly be well versed in all the different world areas understands the background. It took 18 years for the authors to complete the research. It may take me that long to fully appreciate all the different areas where both Rockefeller and the Evangelism movement had an impact. It is not enough to check out the book from the library... it has to be on the bookshelf of any person intereted in understanding the new type of collonialism.

Thy Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon:
Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil - By Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett - HarperCollins, 960 p.   By Craig Eisendrath June 22-29, 1995

Thy Will Be Done, by Gerard Colby (the author of two books on the Du Ponts) and Charlotte Dennett, is the latest and one of the most convincingly documented studies ever to indict financial power.

Its focus is Nelson Rockefeller, grandson of John D. Rockefeller, Senior, the richest and possibly the most ruthless of the first generation of Robber Barons. Heir to an immense empire, Nelson Rockefeller (accordin g to Colby) used his wealth and that of his family and financial associates to construct a network of power and influence designed to exploit the Amazon, an area roughly the size of the continental United States.

Rockefeller leveraged not only the financial power of his banks and industrial and extractive industries, but created interlocking directorates of supporting political power. Thy Will Be Done could rightly have been titled Conflict of Interest , as Colby documents how Rockefeller consistently misused public office and nonprofit status to gain personal economic advantage. His tools were his "non-profit" foundations; agencies and commissions in the U.S. government and military; and the C.I.A. and clandestine parts of the National Security Council, par ticularly the Special Group. Rockefeller men moved from agency to agency like chess pieces on a board to create public policy which furthered Rockefeller interests.

Through constant fueling of these agencies from the family fortune, Rockefeller was also ab le to buy or control political and economic leadership in the Amazon countries, as well as in Central America and Argentina. In effect, he and his associates became a super-government in the Western Hemisphere.

Colby and Dennett tell fascinating stories, such as that of U.S. involvement in the deposition of Brazil' s liberal president Joao Goulart; the clandestine alliance of Lyndon Johnson and Nelson Rockefeller; and the close cooperation between Christian funda mentalism, including the Wycliffe Bible Translators, and U.S. intelligence, which in the light of our present political situation, should serve as a cautionary tale. They tell us much about the use of the "communist menace" and Castroism as excuses to subvert governments and exploit peoples during the Cold War.

They Will Be Done also traces the origins of present Latin American policy to Nelson and his brother, David. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and current tariff rounds codify the Rockefeller approach, giving support to military leadership trained in the United States and protecting U.S. investment against nationalization, creating a free-trade zone in which infant Latin American industries are left defenseless against better developed U.S. competitors. The Rockefeller way of thinking is clearly reflected in these policies' relaxation of restrictions against the free movement of U.S. capital, and the lowering of hemispheric environmental and labor standards. According to Colby, the " Rockefeller legacy... was global in scope, leaving behind few happy, prosperous people, many dictatorships, and much debt."

Thy Will Be Done is a seemingly inexhaustible mine of fact and suggestion. But the book's strengths are also its uncorrected weaknesses. There is simply too much about too many topics. Thy Will Be Done reads more like a cabinet of Rockefeller and C.I.A. files than like a book. Its 960 pages beg for organization and cutting, for clear statements of dominant ideas, for the structured presentation of evidence rather than the proliferation of stories. The book seems an unfortunate victim of under-editing in a period of publishing in which the editorial function is clearly on the wane.

Read and digested, this book seriously challenges our notions of government and society. It argues that our foreign policy is a direct function of ruthless corporate interests; that clandestine U.S. intelligence and military operations are out of control; and that the gap between our government's public proclamations in foreign affairs and our real actions is even wider than the most cynical of us would have imagined.

A former U.S. foreign service officer and executive director of the Pennsylvania Humanities Council, Dr. Eisendrath has his Ph.D. in the History of American Civilization from Harvard University.

http://www.citypaper.net/articles/062295/article023.shtml

To hear an interview of the author Gerard Colby online:


Other excellent resources about this subject are:

The Best Democracy Money Can Buy: An Investigative Reporter Exposes the Truth about Globalization, Corporate Cons, and High Finance Fraudsters by Greg Palast (Hardcover)
The War on Freedom: How and Why America was Attacked, September 11, 2001 by Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed (Paperback)
Dark Alliance : The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion by Gary Webb (Hardcover)
Into the Buzzsaw: Leading Journalists Expose the Myth of a Free Press by Kristina Borjesson (Editor), Gore Vidal (Foreword) (Hardcover)
War on Iraq: What Team Bush Doesn't Want You to Know by William Rivers Pitt, Scott Ritter (Contributor) (Paperback)
Alice in Wonderland and the World Trade Center Disaster by David Icke
The Grand Chessboard by Zbigniew K. Brzezinski
Wealth and Democracy by Kevin Phillips
Du Pont Dynasty by Gerard Colby
Rich Man in the Kingdom Biography